Information on the condition of vineyards of Ukraine on June 1, 2021 year
Published: 01.06.2021, 07:00 | Author: glavadm
Unstable moderately cool weather with precipitation was maintained on the territory of the wine-growing zone of Ukraine during May. The average monthly air temperature was 14-15ºС. The maximum air temperatures increased to 28-29ºС, in Odesa to 25ºС, and the minimum ones decreased to 2-4ºС in heat, in Odesa – to + 6ºС.
The sum of active air temperatures according to the meteorological post at the NSC “IViV named after Tairov” was 560ºС, which is 80 меншеС less than the norm. The amount of precipitation in May was: Uzhhorod, Odessa, Zaporizhia – 40-54 mm, Mykolaiv, Kherson – 109 and 98 mm, respectively (https://rp5.ua/).
Favorable conditions for moisture and moderate heat in the spring led to intensive growth of grape shoots
In the future, to control weediness of vineyards and maintain the top layer of soil in a loose state should be shallow (7-10 cm) cultivation with simultaneous tillage in rows with tools PRVM-11000 or analogues.
By the first half of June in the vineyards it is necessary to remove excess shoots. On fruiting grape bushes, weak shoots and trunk growth are first broken off, as well as those that have developed on perennial wood and are not needed to restore individual fruit elements.
The optimal load of shoots per hectare of tall vineyards should be in table varieties with large clusters (Arcadia, Italy, Moldova, Riddle) – 45-55 thousand, in varieties with medium and small clusters (Kardysha, Hamburg Muscat, Pearl Muscat70 – 60) thousands.
90-110 thousand shoots per hectare are left on the plantations of technical grape varieties after breaking off.
On young (2-4 year old) plantations green operations (breaking off, pinching, pasynkuvaniye) directed on formation of elements of a crown of a bush are carried out.
Spring grape cultivation is a mandatory process that protects grape plants from pests and diseases at the beginning of their development and spread. Spring precipitation in the spring provokes the activation of pathogens, which immediately spread to shoots and young leaves, and an increase in temperature over 10…15ºC in combination with rain promotes the germination of spores, their active development and damage to plants. At the end of May, heavy rains fell, which created conditions for the development of fungal diseases of grapes, especially mildew, gray rot, black spot, black rot, and others. Intensive development of powdery mildew should also be expected, because the optimal conditions for the development of the disease are air temperature +18…+25ºC and relative humidity above 70% with a decrease in temperature at night.
In the current meteorological conditions there is an active development and spread of grape felt mite or itch (Eriophyes vitis Pgst.), The harmfulness of which can be traced throughout the growing season. This year marks its widespread development, both in southern Ukraine and in Zaporizhia and Zakarpattia regions.
The number of pests usually increases in the second half of May. The mite is harmful locally, but can cause significant crop loss. Erineums (convex galls), in which the mite develops, act as protective barriers, protecting the mite from external influences, including the action of acaricide. Therefore it is necessary to carry out processing in time, namely in the period of an exit of a tick from a winter diapause, at blossoming of 1-2 true leaves.
At present, in the conditions of the south of Ukraine, the flight of butterflies of the first-generation bunch of leafhoppers, which began later than usual – in the first decade of May, is coming to an end. Due to the weather conditions of spring, the leaf-twisting years are long and intermittent, but very numerous. According to various farms, 26 to 173 individuals fall into the trap per day, in some cases even more. The revival of caterpillars lasts more than a month. Therefore, it is necessary to plan additional treatment from the first generation of leaf curlers before flowering grapes, which should be carried out no later than the first decade of June in the presence of a threshold amount of the pest.
In Zaporizhia and Zakarpattia oblasts in recent years, including the current one, the number and harmfulness of caterpillars is low, only in some farms for the prevention of damage to inflorescences carried out protective treatments with insecticides.
It should be noted that pre-flowering treatment of grapes will regulate the development of other pests, especially different species of cicadas, thrips, leaf mites, etc., with low numbers, restraining population density at a level close to the economic threshold of harmfulness.
Based on the phytosanitary condition, before the beginning of mass flowering for the purpose of preventive protection against diseases it is necessary to carry out processing of plantings by tank mixes of fungicides: Thanos 50 in. g. + Talendo 20 k.e.; Acrobat MC, c. d. g. + Collis, k. s .; Melody Duo in. g. + Falcon, k.e .; Rydomil Gold, Acting + Topaz, k.e .; Folpan, c. g. + Topsin M, z. n., etc.
These combinations of pesticides will provide effective protection against mildew, powdery mildew and gray rot with the additional effect of effective protection against black spot, anthracnose, rubella and others.
To provide long-term protection to the tank mixture of insecticides and fungicides should be used new generation surfactants belonging to the organo-silicone group of adjuvants known as “superadhesives”, such as Sylvet Gold (0.05-0.1% slave). solution (Scab) (0.05-0.1% working solution), biological adhesive Adjugrain, 10% (1.5% working solution) and others.
Recently, the use of biostimulators of growth and microfertilizers of biological origin in the system of integrated protection of intensive vineyards is the most effective measure to increase yields and improve the quality of finished products.
We recommend applying Atonic Plus (0.2 l / ha), Izabion (3.0 l / ha) and Amalgerol (3.0 l / ha), Sunny Mix “wagon” (0.1 l / ha), Sunny Mix ” boron ”(1.5 l / ha), Oxygumate (1.0 l / ha) – preparations that have passed production testing and have shown high efficiency of application on selection plantations of our Institute.