Information on the condition of vineyards of Ukraine on April 1, 2021 year
Published: 01.04.2021, 07:07 | Author: glavred
March in the wine-growing zone of Ukraine was marked by unstable weather with moderate precipitation in the form of rain and snow. The average monthly air temperature was 2–4 ºС of heat. The minimum air temperatures decreased in Uzhhorod, Mykolayiv, and Kherson to -6… -9 ºС, in Odesa to -3 ºС, and in Zaporizhia to 13 ºС of frost. Maximum temperatures rose to 12–18 ºС of heat. The amount of precipitation in March was 24–30 mm in Uzhhorod, Odesa, Mykolayiv, and 40–42 mm in Kherson and Zaporizhia.
Given the physiological state of the bushes, it is safe to say that the development of plants in the current year will be stretched in time, both within a certain variety and individual areas. At the same time, the maintenance of a low temperature in March contributed to the additional differentiation of the preserved grape buds.
Most farms have now completed the pruning of fruit-bearing vineyards and have begun raking the vines. Currently, young (1-2-year-old) plantations are being opened, pruned and repaired. Favorable weather conditions in early spring allow you to start planting new grapes earlier, install and repair wallpaper and carry out other spring work.
In the spring, special attention should be paid to weed control, which can pose a significant risk to the life of vineyards. In addition to mechanized tillage, Lumax soil herbicide, which is 4.0 l / ha, should be used to reduce weeds.
In order to preserve the existing reserves of moisture in areas with autumn chiseling, it is necessary to carry out cultivation to a depth of 10–12 cm. In the vineyards plowed in autumn, deep cultivation is carried out to level the dump furrows. In areas with low soil fertility and low shoot growth, it is necessary to apply mineral fertilizers at the rate of 90–120 kg a.d./ha of nitrogen, 90–120 kg a.d./ha of phosphorus and 120–180 kg to the root zone during April. dr / ha of potassium.
Analysis of the condition of grape plantations shows that due to various damages, the methods of further care of the bushes in the current year should be differentiated and aimed at obtaining the maximum possible yield of berries.
Taking into account the rainy weather in spring, it is very important to carry out preventive treatments of vineyards and reliably protect plants from diseases and pests, because the weather conditions are very favorable for their development and spread. The relatively warm winter contributed well to the overwintering of pathogens of grape diseases. There is a high infectious stock of pathogens and wintering stages of pests, sufficient for the widespread and strong development of major diseases and pests in the current year, which is maintained at a high level throughout the growing season.
The first treatment is carried out in March-April with contact fungicides based on copper (Cosside 2000 (1.5-2.0 kg / ha), Blue Bordeaux (5.0 kg / ha), Kuprosil (5.0 l / ha), Kuproksat (3.0-5.0 l / ha), Patrol (3.0 kg / ha), Champion (3.0 kg / ha), Champion Ultra (2.5-3.0), etc.), which should start at a temperature of + 8 ° C, the calendar is not later than the second decade of April. During this period, it is necessary to inspect the plantations for the presence of kidney pests (scoop caterpillars, woodpeckers, beetles, etc.), which develop and damage the cells. The rationale for protective treatments is the detection of 3-5 damaged buds on the bush, you should use drugs such as Enzio 247 SC, hp (0.18 l / ha), Talstar, (0.2 l / ha), Confidor (0.25 l / ha), Eco Oil Spray (1.5–2.0 l / ha) and others.
The second treatment is carried out with the appearance of the first 2-3 leaves, using contact fungicides, pay attention to drugs with the active substance mancozeb, which have a preventive effect against a wide range of pathogens (Manzat, VG) (1.6-2.4 kg / ha), Penkocep, ZP (2.4–3.0 kg / ha), Ditan M-45, s.p. (2.0–3.0 kg / ha), etc .: Anthracol (1.5 kg / ha) , Shavit (2.0 kg / ha), Folpan (2.0 kg / ha), Merpan (2.0 kg / ha), Delan (0.5–1.0 kg / ha), Poliram (1.2 kg / ha), etc.), which create a protective layer on the surface of the treated plant, which prevents the penetration of infection into the middle of the leaf. If necessary, acaricides against mites (Apollo, k. S. (0.24–0.36 l / ha), Masai, s. P. (0.4–0.6 l / ha), Nissoran are added to this treatment , farm (0.24–0.36 kg / ha), Sunmight, farm (0.5–0.75 kg / ha), Envidor, farm (0.4 l / ha) ), etc.), or insecticidal acaricide: Talstar, k. e. (0.2 l / ha), Confidor, c. r. k. (0.15–-0.2 l / ha), Karate Zeon, mk. with. (0.2 l / ha), Voliam Flexi, c. (0.5 l / ha), Engio, hp (0.18 l / ha), etc.).