Information on the condition of vineyards of Ukraine on October 1, 2021 year
Published: 01.10.2020 y., 09:15 | Author: Кузьменко Артем
During September, unfavorable agrometeorological conditions due to severe air and soil drought persisted in all wine-growing regions. Heavy rains in late September and early October occurred mainly in the western and central oblasts and did not solve the problem in the south and east. Thus, the high temperature regime in summer and the lack of effective precipitation during the year led to relatively low reserves of productive moisture in the soil. Due to the long drought, the growth of shoots stopped and berries were poured. In many areas on the bushes there was drying of berries in bunches. Due to low moisture reserves in the soil, the plants are in a depressed state, which is manifested in low water content of shoots. Reduce the effects of drought and improve the preparation of bushes for winter is possible only with rapid harvesting (within 10-15 days).
To reduce the negative effects of drought on grapes, all agronomic measures should be aimed at preserving soil moisture. After harvesting it is necessary to carry out shallow (12-15 cm) chiseling between rows of vineyards.
Conditions of the current season have contributed to a significant accumulation of infectious stock of the complex of diseases and an increase in the number of pests. Significant lack of precipitation and lack of atmospheric moisture led to arid agrometeorological conditions, which in turn affected the development of powdery mildew on the type of epiphytosis (Uncinula necator Berkl.) And the phenology of the development of grape leafhopper (Lobesia botrana Den. Et Schiff.) harmfulness threshold.
Favorable weather conditions have developed for the development of a complex of sucking pests (mites, cicadas and thrips). In the conditions of cold long spring and late development of bushes harmfulness of kidney mites, in particular grape kidney mite (Eriophyes vitigineusgemma Maltsh.) Was revealed. Japanese (Far Eastern) grape cicada (Arboridia kakogowana Mats.) Developed en masse, especially in the private sector. Vineyard was inhabited by herbivorous thrips (Thysanotera), showing two peaks of harmfulness: the first – during the development of 9-10 leaves, the second – in the period from the active growth of inflorescences to the beginning of the growth of grapes.
The season did not go without the defeat of grapes by various types of rot. Gray rot (Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex Fr.) developed mainly on technical varieties of those massifs where intensive development of bunch twist was observed. Table varieties, in addition to gray rot, were massively affected by various types of mold rot (Aspergillus niger, Rizopus nigricans, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium expansum, etc.).
To avoid further accumulation and preservation of infectious stock of pathogenic organisms in vineyards and to protect the vine in the autumn-winter period, it is necessary to ensure the removal of all clusters from the bushes (source of infectious stock) and in late October or early November to treat shrubs and adjacent soil 3-5 % solution of ferrous sulfate, respectively, young and perennial plantations.
Despite innovations in crop production, ferrous sulfate, thanks to a wide range of action and safety, has not lost its popularity to this day. One of the advantages of iron sulfate is the possibility of its use as a fertilizer (in the fight against chlorosis), disinfectant (against lichens and mosses), insecticide and fungicide. In addition, iron sulphate forms a kind of coating on the wood, which protects the grapes from temperature fluctuations in winter.