Information on the condition of vineyards of Ukraine on March 1, 2021 year
Published: 01.03.2021 y., 10:43 | Author: glavred
February in the wine-growing zone of Ukraine was marked by unstable weather. Air temperatures ranged from the minimum -16…-18ºС (Mykolaiv, Kherson, Zaporizhia) and -11ºС (Uzhhorod, Odessa) to the maximum +14…+17ºС. On average, the air temperature in Uzhhorod and Odesa was about 1ºС of heat per month, in Mykolayiv, Zaporizhia and Kherson – about 1…3ºС of frost. Precipitation in February was observed in the form of rain, snow and sleet, their amount was in Uzhgorod – 82 mm, in Odessa – 51 mm, in Nikolaev – 35 mm, in Kherson – 19 mm and in Zaporozhye – 31 mm (https://rp5.ua).
Determining the degree of damage to the buds in the grape buds showed that in the south-western regions of Transnistria Odessa (Sarata, Tarutino), where the minimum air temperature in winter reached -21ºС, the death of central buds varies on average in technical varieties of European origin from 50 to 90%, in canteens – from 80 to 100%. The most damaged low-frost-resistant table varieties Cardinal, Queen of Vineyards, Italy, Karaburna and others. The vineyards of the central districts of the region suffered a little less from the frost. The death of central buds in most technical varieties here was 40-60%.
Given the fact that the main arrays of the most frost-resistant varieties in most specialized farms have already been pruned, the main attention should be paid to establishing an optimal system of pruning shrubs of less frost-resistant varieties. For this purpose it is necessary to carry out analyzes of safety of kidneys on each crew, site, grade. Before you start pruning shrubs, you should determine the degree of damage to the buds and vines in each area, each variety and make appropriate adjustments, determine the rational length of pruning and the load on the bushes buds.
For technical varieties of grapes when pruning should be left about 90-120 thousand intact cells per hectare, on table varieties with small clusters (Kardishah, Pearl muscat, etc.) – 85-95 thousand, and on varieties with large clusters (Moldova, Zagadka, Tair, etc.) – 70–75 thousand cells per hectare of plantations.
Determining the embryonic fertility of grape buds for the 2021 harvest shows that the laying of inflorescences in grape buds is at a level higher than long-term indicators. Of particular note is the high degree of laying inflorescences in the lower part of the shoots of the vast majority of varieties. It should be noted that due to the arid vegetation conditions of the previous year, the physiological condition of the bushes and the maturation of their growth were unsatisfactory. Therefore, on plantations that have been significantly affected by drought, pruning is carried out taking into account the strength of shoot growth, in some cases with the restoration of individual elements of the crown of the bush.
Determination of soil moisture in vineyards shows that at the beginning of spring field work, the reserves of productive moisture in the meter layer are about 135 mm (90-95% HB). It should be noted that a gradual increase in temperature in combination with strong winds in early spring can cause loss of soil moisture. Therefore, it is necessary to take measures to preserve moisture in the vineyards as soon as possible and as soon as possible.
For pests and diseases, stress in the form of weather conditions affect their conservation, developmental activity and reproduction to a lesser extent than on the grape plant. Data from expeditionary inspections of vineyards and laboratory analyzes of selected biological material (samples of vines, soil, plant residues, etc.) indicate the preservation of a sufficiently high infectious wintering stock of pathogens and pests of grapes on the entire registered area of plantations.
Thus, in the current season should expect the development of all major pests and diseases of grapes, especially – herbivorous mites, grape leafhopper, sucking pests, mildew, powdery mildew, black spot, anthracnose, Alternaria, rot complex (mostly white and gray).
The problem of optimizing the phytosanitary condition of vineyards for pests should be solved based on the planned measures to protect plantations for the entire growing season. It is necessary to draw up a system of protective measures taking into account the development of harmful objects last year for each individual array of plantations and to purchase in advance a sufficient number of plant protection products. They should be purchased from reliable suppliers to guarantee quality and stored in a dry place according to the instructions.
Currently in the vineyards, it is necessary to pay attention to the protection of grapes from herbivorous mites, which begin to become active at a temperature of +7…+8ºС. At transition of average daily air temperature through 10ºС it is necessary to carry out preventive processing, using oil emulsions – Preparation 30D with 2,5% concentration of working solution, or Eco Oil Spray (1,5–2,0 l/ha) which will allow to form thin uniform protective film of the drug and kept on the plant for more than three weeks, which will provide reliable protection against the wintering stages of various pests, including against thymus, which in recent years are gradually settling
and vineyards. The drugs have a preventive rather than eradicating effect, so they should be used before flowering, or during the swelling of the kidneys.
No later than the first decade of April, the bushes should be treated («washing») with copper-containing drugs, which will be a good preventive basis for protecting grape plantations from many diseases, such as mildew, anthracnose, black spot, infectious drying of bushes, etc.
Subsequent treatment should be carried out during the flowering of 2-3 leaves, using a tank mixture of drugs, based on the phytosanitary condition of the plantations. First of all, the mixture should contain a contact fungicide of complex action against diseases (Anthracol (1.5 kg/ha), Shavit (2.0 kg/ha), Folpan (2.0 kg/ha), Merpan (2.0 kg/ha), Delan (0.5-1.0 kg/ha), Poliram (1.2 kg/ha), etc.) and sulfur-containing preparation (Tiovit Jet, v.g. (5.0-8.0 kg/ha), Cumulus, v.g. (4.0-6.0 kg/ha), which has a preventive effect against powdery mildew and herbivorous mites. mite eggs (Apollo, k.s. (0.24-0.36 l/ha), Masai, s.p. (0.4-0.6 l/ha), Nissoran, s.p. 24-0.36 kg/ha), Sunmite, s.p. (0.5-0.75 kg/ha), Envidor, k.s. (0.4 l/ha), etc.), or insect -acaricide: Talstar, k.e. (0.2 l/ha), Confidor, v.r.k. (0.15-0.2 l/ha), Karate Zeon, mk.s. (0.2 l/ha), Voliam Flexi, h.p. (0.5 l/ha), Engio, h.p. (0.18 l/ha) and others.
Particular attention in vineyards should be paid to weed control, which complicates the phytosanitary condition of plantations and is a reservoir of development and nutrition for many pests (especially suckers).
To protect vineyards from weeds in the early spring, we recommend applying a soil herbicide for pre-emergence and post-emergence weed control – Lumax 537.5 SE, p.e. (3.5-4.0 l/ha), which has a prolonged effect and effectively controls the growth of weeds for 10-12 weeks, even in unstable climatic conditions.