Information on the condition of vineyards of Ukraine on Decemberr 1, 2021 year
Published: 01.12.2021 y., 03:44 | Author: Кузьменко Артем
November in the wine-growing zone of Ukraine was marked by rather warm weather with moderate precipitation. The average monthly air temperature was 5-6⁰С, in Odessa + 8⁰С. Maximum air temperatures rose to +16 … + 18⁰С, in Kherson – to + 21⁰С. Minimum air temperatures dropped to 4-7⁰С below zero, in Odessa – to 1⁰С below zero. The amount of precipitation in November was: in Uzhgorod – 78 mm, Odessa – 26 mm, in Nikolaev – 30 mm, in Kherson – 33 mm, in Zaporozhye – 44 mm (https://rp5.ua/).
Autumn weather conditions did not have a negative impact on the preservation of grape buds. And the laying of inflorescences in them depended on the site, variety, load of bushes, system of protection of plantings from pests and diseases during the growing season and other factors. Therefore, in order to obtain the planned harvest before pruning the bushes in each case, it is necessary to be guided by the data of potential fruitfulness, preservation of cells and load norms calculated on their basis. When pruning vines, keep in mind that when the temperature threatens to reach critical values for grapes (January – mid-February), the load on their buds should be increased by 15-25%, taking into account the possible death of the latter.
Determination of embryonic fertility of cells in different grape varieties has shown that this year it is within the average long-term values and allows a sufficient load of bushes to expect a good grape harvest next year. Fertility is slightly worse in areas that were damaged during the growing season by diseases and were overloaded with crops.
Pruning of bushes should be started in areas of frost-resistant grape varieties with good development and maturation of annual shoots and high preservation of buds. If the annual vines of the bushes have matured less than 50%, such plantings should be pruned only after an unfavorable period with severe frosts, usually the second half of February.
In young (1-2 year old) vineyards, in order to prevent damage to future trunks, and especially the place of adhesion, it is mandatory to plow the bushes with a layer of soil 20-30 cm.
In vineyards, the rows of which have not been cultivated for the winter, it is necessary to carry out deep loosening of the soil with the application of organo-mineral fertilizers, using favorable winter conditions. It is better to loosen the plowed layer with chisels without its rotation, flat cutters, etc.
During the visual inspection of the bushes, under the bark and in the cracks of the trunks, wintering pupae of the bunch of leafhoppers were found on the entire accounting area, the number of which ranges from 1.3 to 2.5 copies. per inhabited bush, maximum – up to 12 specimens / bush against 0.9 specimens / bush and the maximum number – up to 10 specimens / bush in the past 2020, which indicates an increase in the number of grape leafhoppers in vineyards.
Microscopy of the cells under the scales revealed live specimens of spider and four-legged mites. Winter stock of spider mites averages 0.2 to 1.5 specimens / bud, four-legged mites (felt, bud and leaf) – an average of 0.5 to 2.7 specimens / bud. The data indicate an increase and accumulation of mites in vineyards due to the fact that they are practically not controlled.
Wintering oospores of mildew are recorded in large numbers on plant remains. The cells have a large supply of wintering mycelium of powdery mildew. Microbiological cultures on solid agar medium isolated in almost every sample of mycelium of gray rot, peritoneum of the causative agent of black rot, pycnidia and sclerotia of white rot. Pathogens of black spot (alpha and beta spores) and anthracnose, diseases that are the first to develop and affect young vegetative and generative organs of grape plants, were identified by the method of spore germination on selected samples of annual shoots. When using the wet chamber method, a very high rate of Alternaria infection was found.
Thus, visual route inspections of vineyards and thorough laboratory analysis of selected samples of vines and plant residues indicate the preservation of a high infectious stock of pests and diseases in vineyards, the viability of which is high, which leads to good preservation of pests in winter and winter. the fact that the vineyards of Ukraine have a high natural infectious background, which will remain until the beginning of the growing season in 2022.